- /ˈdraɪəd, -æd/
Dryads are tree nymphs in Greek mythology. In Greek drys signifies 'oak,' from an Indo-European root *derew(o)- 'tree' or 'wood'. Thus dryads are specifically the nymphs of oak trees, though the term has come to be used for all tree nymphs in general. "Such deities are very much overshadowed by the divine figures defined through poetry and cult," Walter Burkert remarked of Greek nature deities (Burkert 1986, p174). Normally considered to be very shy creatures, except around the goddess Artemis who was known to be a friend to most nymphs.
MeliaiThe dryads of ash trees were called the Meliai. The ash-tree sisters tended the infant Zeus in Rhea's Cretan cave. Rhea gave birth to the Meliai after being made fertile by the blood of castrated Ouranos. They were also sometimes associated with fruit trees.
HamadryadDryads, like all nymphs, were supernaturally long-lived and tied to their homes, but some were a step beyond most nymphs. These were the hamadryads who were an integral part of their trees, such that if the tree died, the hamadryad associated with it died as well. For these reasons, dryads and the Greek gods punished any mortals who harmed trees without first propitiating the tree-nymphs.
DaphnaieIn the myth of Daphne, the nymph was pursued by Apollo and became a dryad associated with the laurel.
- Seen in John Keat's poem Ode to a Nightingale in line 7 where the bird is compared to a Dryad.
- Seen in Ben Jonson's poem To Penshurst in line 10 - "They mount, to which thy Dryads do resort."
- Referenced in Charles Williams's novel, Descent into Hell.
- Dryads are amongst the creatures who appear in C.S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia.
- Ce'Nedra, a central character in David Eddings' Belgariad and Malloreon, is of dryad heritage.
- Dryads (including male dryads) briefly appear in the Discworld novel The Colour of Magic.
- Sylvia Plath uses Dryads symbolically in her poetry, for example: "On the Difficulty of Conjuring up a Dryad"
dryad in Catalan: Dríada
dryad in Czech: Dryády
dryad in Danish: Dryade
dryad in German: Dryade
dryad in Spanish: Dríade
dryad in French: Dryades
dryad in Indonesian: Dryad
dryad in Italian: Driadi
dryad in Luxembourgish: Dryaden
dryad in Lithuanian: Driadė
dryad in Dutch: Dryaden
dryad in Japanese: ドリュアス
dryad in Polish: Driada
dryad in Portuguese: Dríade
dryad in Russian: Дриады
dryad in Finnish: Dryadit
dryad in Swedish: Dryader
dryad in Turkish: Dryadlar
dryad in Ukrainian: Дріади